Bauhaus comes from Weimar
On the 1st of April 1919, the cornerstone was laid for the most famous school of design and architecture in the world. Walter Gropius became the director of the former Grand Ducal Saxe Art School in Weimar. He fused it with the School of Applied Arts that had been closed in 1915 and named the resulting institution the State Bauhaus Weimar. The school represented the spirit of awakening that was also dominant in the current politics, personified by the national assembly convening in Weimar at the time to pen the constitution of 1919.
Wild Years in Weimar
At the Bauhaus materials were tested, and the interaction between form, color and movement were examined in the workshops and on the stage. The students were trained in all the disciplines of handicraft – sculpture, painting, applied arts and craftsmanship. The most significant artists of the 20th century were appointed as teachers: Lyonel Feininger, Gerhard Marcks, Johannes Itten, Georg Muche, Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, László Moholy-Nagy, Oskar Schlemmer, and many more.
“Bauhaus” meant a new lifestyle: dance, theatre, parodies, sports and music were firmly anchored in daily life. The parties at the restaurant Ilmschlösschen became legendary. The Bauhaus Exhibition of 1923 also became legendary, earning acclaim from guests from all over the world. The House am Horn was the focal point, the first building realized by the Bauhaus according to plans by Georg Muche. Today it has been declared UNESCO World Heritage.
From Weimar around the World
Politicians of the conservative right-wing dominated the Thuringian state government as of 1923 and formed opposition to the avant-garde school. They considered it “internationalist” and “infiltrated by Jews”. The hostility led to drastic cuts of the school’s budget. Six years after its founding, the Bauhaus moved to Dessau. In 1932, it was forced to leave once again, and after several months of scaled-down operation in Berlin it was finally closed altogether. The representatives of the Bauhaus who left for foreign countries carried the ideas around the world, where they were further developed and newly discovered – in Chicago, Tel Aviv, Moscow and elsewhere.